I forgot what it was I was going to post. It was some good stuff on TOCOTRIENOLS!!
I will be back soon.
I have been researching TOCOTRIENOLS for many things and it appears that protecting neurons is something they do quite well.
Buying the right stuff is tricky..
Here is what they should contain...
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1031:127-42.
Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system?
Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S.
SourceDavis Heart & Lung Research Institute, 473 West 12th Avenue, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin E is essential for normal neurological function. It is the major lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in the body, protecting the integrity of membranes by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.
Mostly on the basis of symptoms of primary vitamin E deficiency, it has been demonstrated that vitamin E has a central role in maintaining neurological structure and function. Orally supplemented vitamin E reaches the cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Vitamin E is a generic term for all tocopherols and their derivatives having the biological activity of RRR-alpha-tocopherol, the naturally occurring stereoisomer compounds with vitamin E activity.
In nature, eight substances have been found to have vitamin E activity: alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol; and alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol. Often, the term vitamin E is synonymously used with alpha-tocopherol. Tocotrienols, formerly known as zeta, , or eta-tocopherols, are similar to tocopherols except that they have an isoprenoid tail with three unsaturation points instead of a saturated phytyl tail. Although tocopherols are predominantly found in corn, soybean, and olive oils, tocotrienols are particularly rich in palm, rice bran, and barley oils.
Tocotrienols possess powerful antioxidant, anticancer, and cholesterol-lowering properties.
Recently, we have observed that alpha-tocotrienol is multi-fold more potent than alpha-tocopherol in protecting HT4 and primary neuronal cells against toxicity induced by glutamate as well as by a number of other toxins.
At nanomolar concentration, tocotrienol, but not tocopherol, completely protected neurons by an antioxidant-independent mechanism. Our current work identifies two major targets of tocotrienol in the neuron: c-Src kinase and 12-lipoxygenase. Dietary supplementation studies have established that tocotrienol, fed orally, does reach the brain.
The current findings point towards tocotrienol as a potent neuroprotective form of natural vitamin E.
PMID:15753140[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Vitam Horm. 2007;76:203-61.
Tocotrienols: the emerging face of natural vitamin E.
Sen CK, Khanna S, Rink C, Roy S.
SourceLaboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
Natural vitamin E includes eight chemically distinct molecules: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienols. More than 95% of all studies on vitamin E are directed toward the specific study of alpha-tocopherol. The other forms of natural vitamin E remain poorly understood. The abundance of alpha-tocopherol in the human body and the comparable efficiency of all vitamin E molecules as antioxidants led biologists to neglect the non-tocopherol vitamin E molecules as topics for basic and clinical research. Recent developments warrant a serious reconsideration of this conventional wisdom. The tocotrienol subfamily of natural vitamin E possesses powerful neuroprotective, anticancer, and cholesterol-lowering properties that are often not exhibited by tocopherols.
Current developments in vitamin E research clearly indicate that members of the vitamin E family are not redundant with respect to their biological functions. alpha-Tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocotrienol have emerged as vitamin E molecules with functions in health and disease that are clearly distinct from that of alpha-tocopherol.
At nanomolar concentration, alpha-tocotrienol, not alpha-tocopherol, prevents neurodegeneration. On a concentration basis, this finding represents the most potent of all biological functions exhibited by any natural vitamin E molecule. Recently, it has been suggested that the safe dose of various tocotrienols for human consumption is 200-1000/day. A rapidly expanding body of evidence supports that members of the vitamin E family are functionally unique. In recognition of this fact, title claims in publications should be limited to the specific form of vitamin E studied. For example, evidence for toxicity of a specific form of tocopherol in excess may not be used to conclude that high-dosage "vitamin E" supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Such conclusion incorrectly implies that tocotrienols are toxic as well under conditions where tocotrienols were not even considered. The current state of knowledge warrants strategic investment into the lesser known forms of vitamin E. This will enable prudent selection of the appropriate vitamin E molecule for studies addressing a specific health need.
PMID:17628176[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]